There are multiple constitutional questions when it comes to redistricting and gerrymandering and the Court has had to deal with some of these issues over the past half-century.
Q1: Do congressional districts have to have an equal population?
A1: Baker v. Carr, 1962; Reynolds v. Sims, 1964; Wesberry v. Sanders, 1964
Q2: Should congressional districts be based on total population, total citizens, total citizens of voting age, or total number of registered voters?
Please read this article to help understand these questions.
A2: Evenwel v. Abbott, 2016
Q3: Does the creation of majority-minority districts (racial gerrymandering) help or hinder minority groups? Is it constitutional?
A3: Shaw v. Reno
Please read this article to hear about the Court's December 2016 oral arguments on racial gerrymandering?
Q4: Should partisan gerrymandering be abolished? Should it be left to independent, non-partisan commissions?
A4: Please read this article to look at the arguments on this question.